An antique hand made snake in the boot trick snuff box dated 1903 Grahamstown. It is said that the use of the snake symbol in Boer items is used to signify guerrilla warfare.
The end of the concentration camps in South Africa officially began with the Treaty of Vereeniging which ended the war in May 1902. However, many of the camps remained until 1903 including the ones in Bloemfontein, Brandfort, and Irene which had some of the highest mortality rates.
As Boer farms were destroyed by the British under their "Scorched Earth" policy—including the systematic destruction of crops and slaughtering of livestock, the burning down of homesteads and farms —to prevent the Boers from resupplying from a home base, many tens of thousands of women and children were forcibly moved into the concentration camps. Survivors were forced into concentration camps. ... settlers in Natal and Cape Colony (especially around Cape Town and Grahamstown) This was not the first appearance of internment camps, as the Spanish had used internment in Cuba in the Ten Years' War, but the Boer War concentration camp system was the first time that a whole nation had been systematically targeted, and the first in which whole regions had been depopulated.
Eventually, there were a total of 45 tented camps built for Boer internees and 64 for black Africans. Of the 28,000 Boer men captured as prisoners of war, 25,630 were sent overseas and either freed or enslaved within civil societies. The vast majority of Boers remaining in the local camps were women and children. Over 27,000 women and children were to perish in these concentration camps.
The camps were poorly administered from the outset and became increasingly overcrowded when Kitchener's troops implemented the internment strategy on a vast scale. Conditions were terrible for the health of the internees, mainly due to neglect, poor hygiene and bad sanitation. The supply of all items was unreliable, partly because of the constant disruption of communication lines by the Boers. The food rations were meager and there was a two-tier allocation policy, whereby families of men who were still fighting were routinely given smaller rations than others. The inadequate shelter, poor diet, bad hygiene and overcrowding led to malnutrition and endemic contagious diseases such as measles, typhoid, and dysentery, to which the children were particularly vulnerable. Coupled with a shortage of modern medical facilities, many of the internees died. Emily Hobhouse was instrumental in bringing relief to the concentration camps, as well as raising public awareness in Europe of the atrocities.